Stage One Annotated Bibliography

[Many Record Disc’s with tracklists] Greene Family disc audio recordings collection, circa 1910-1940s Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA.

The source is composed of almost all physical records. There isn’t a real argument or anything like that it is primarily just the records with a sheet that gives the producer and who is on the record. This was primarily just used for me to look at how a modern family had records during the 1940’s. This aligns with the other research that I’ve found about how widespread record players are. The amount of records they owned was a very significant amount. It also goes to show the music of the time which was primarily jazz music consisting of Bing Crosby and other popular musicians of that time. This does interact with the complexity of the radio and other music sources. This source doesn’t work well with others of this topic as it doesn’t go into the complexity of other technology. This does lead me to want to find what the records continued to change too and progress. It also makes me want to consider older technologies and how durable they were compared to what I was looking at and how the durability changed over time.

Kochanny, Thaddeus. “Music Box History.” Music Box History. Automatic Musical Instrument Collecters Assn., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2016. <;.

This source talked about how music boxes and their history. The first part of the article was going through how music boxes work and generally what they are. It then provides an extensive history on music boxes before the technology existed. It also considered the technology and how it changed. It goes on to provide almost a modern picture of where the technology is at now. This source aligned with multiple other sources that I’ve considered. The first being the actual technology of record players. The overlap of the introduction of record players and music boxes. There was a large overlap between the two. This seems like it’s primarily due to the time it took for the record player to be able to be reproduced at mass quantities. The other interesting connection that can be made between this article and other research would be the how early the music box was a technology. It predated record players by quite a span and lasted for much longer than the record player did. This says more about technology in general sense, as the trend being that technology seems to be rapidly increasing. One possible reason would be more people and better communication systems that continue to be improved upon. This website prompted other questions that could yield greater research. One of these would be what is the connection between the record player and CD player? How long did the CD player take to replace the record player? This would be interesting to consider because not only would it examine the difference between the two but also could analyze the trend of technology in general. This is something that also affects the culture of a technology is the culture of improvement in technology of the time.

Sack, Harald. “The Unfortunate Inventions of Charles Cros.” Yovisto Blog. N.p., 20 Jan. 2015. Web. 08 Nov. 2016. <;.

This source examined the very beginning of the record player. The source relays that the first person to think of the record player was Charles Cros with his idea of the paleophone. This idea was what is now the phonograph which was invented by Thomas Edison years after Charles Cros outlined the paleophone. The blog also talked about other inventions of Cros which were not relevant to this research, however was still interesting. The article outlined the general history of the invention of both the paleophone as well as the history behind Edison’s phonograph. This source also provides input onto how the phonograph works and the general thinking about it. This source was extremely helpful in connecting modern record players and the phonograph, the main predecessor to the record player. This connected well with the physical records I examined as it now made sense as to why there was a shift to vinyl in the 1940’s. The shift was due to the inefficiency of the system of phonographs. Phonographs used a method of tinfoil as that was the only way to record sound and play it back. The system now is just playback and the recording process is done in a different way. The interesting thing to find would be when exactly did the foil wrapped rotating disk transition to a vinyl disk. This interacts with the environmental impact because the two materials are extremely different compositions. This interaction is what that I think is significant to the physical composition of records. It’s also significant as it allowed for a longer lifespan of recordings. It also pushed records into a direction of one that was only the playback function. Finding real accounts from companies around the time of the transition would be valuable.

“History of the Cylinder Phonograph.” The Library of Congress. United States Legislative Information, n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2016. <;.

The publisher of this source is one that is very reputable. This is good as much of the background research behind the history of the phonograph was from this source. This source goes through and gives lots of the same information on Edison and the invention as other sources. It gives an extensive examination on the history of the record player and some of the roadblocks that caused the mass production to take so long. The source also gives an account of what Edison envisioned for the record player and the possible uses of it. It’s worth noting that the record player history is that of cylinder record players which were some of the earliest types of record players. The history goes up too about 1910 and discusses that at about that time, the cylinder record had served it’s purposed and was essentially ended. The interaction between this article, the physical records I examined and the research on music boxes and the paleophone are the interesting thing to the first question. The first question working through the changes in the technology and the cultural significance of those changes. This source discusses much of the history behind early record players after the technology first got invented. This history is crucial to the development of the technology and trying to understand how this affects culture. Examining where a technology came from and where it’s heading is a large part of the culture around it. This source tracked money behind many of the earlier companies that started out the record player. Having this for later in the record player’s time would be valuable to see how large the technology progressed. This interacts well with the scope of the technology which affects the culture of the technology.

[Edwin Booth Papers, including money expenses and income sheets.]. Cage 587, Edwin T. Booth Papers. Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA

This source wasn’t the most helpful regarding record players themselves. It served as generally a supplementary source that I used to try and look at the culture without widespread music accessibility. This source was in the manuscripts and special archives part of the library and was from the 1860’s. The part of the source that I considered was the money transcripts of the theater as well as some letters Booth sent to people. While this wasn’t the most helpful to examine record players it did give a good platform to think about the impact of record players and mass music. Before music boxes and record players the way to listen to music was going to performances or hearing instruments being played. This was while some might argue was more fulfilling also allowed for anyone to enjoy the culture that music creates. This made me then connect this to the fact that while most the population wasn’t out in rural areas; most people were in an area that didn’t have live performances happening lots. Many people were farmers or owned lots of land where there weren’t people to just play music to be listened too. This source was also extremely interesting since Edwin Booth was brothers to John Wilkes Booth. Doing more research on these two was incredibly interesting. This doesn’t have anything to do with record players just was very interesting. I could consider other theaters or try to find some opinion piece in a historic newspaper about the difference between before music was widespread compared to after.


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