Phase 3 Sources

Mobile Source Pollution Control Program (U.S.). Fuel Economy and Emission Control. Washington D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency. 1972.

  • This source begins with explaining what fuel economy is. Basically, many factors influence fuel economy, and can be measured as the single parameter. Next, it tells the readers about the factors influencing fuel economy. These factors are the design of the car, the way the car is being driven, the type of route the car travels, the type of engine in use, the power and convenience accessories, and the ambient conditions. They were all very well described, and together they find the fuel economy. The effects emission control has on the fuel economy was also addressed. There is a federal test procedure that checks the emissions, but it has advantages and disadvantages to its use. This procedure also used three main data sources. They are the EPA surveillance data, EPA in-house data from various programs, and EPA certification data. This source also addresses the impact different design features have on the automobile’s fuel economy. Some of these features include air conditioning, transmissions, and the weight of the vehicle. This source is different from my other sources, because it describes how different factors effect one thing. Some follow-up questions could be: What would happen if we didn’t know about emissions? How would the automobile be built differently if emissions and fuel economy weren’t an issue?

Rakowski, Andrzej. Radiocarbon method in monitoring fossil fuel emission.

  • This source starts with an introduction to the material the article will be covering. It talks about fossil fuels, and how the emissions of fossil fuels were measured using different methods and theories. The main focus of the article is radiocarbon. This can be measured and observed, but it has been steadily decreasing in concentration over time. Scientists have the ability to observe radiocarbon in the atmosphere, biosphere, or ocean. Plant growth reflects the concentration changes of radiocarbon in the atmosphere. One easy way to observe the changes in radiocarbon is to study the growth rings in trees. This source is different from my other sources, because it does not directly deal with the engine or a car, but rather with what influences what products can be is use. After reading this article, a couple of follow-up questions could be: If the concentration of radiocarbon was unable to be measured, how would that effect the types of engines used in cars? Would a change in the way some of the parts are manufactured be able to increase fuel economy?

N.a. Getting Cars off the Road: The Cost-Effectiveness of an Episodic Pollution Control Program. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2010.

  • This source tells us about how ground-level ozone has remained a serious problem. There have been ideas that would include citizens having to buy permits in order to drive during days that there is a high-level of ozone. Ozone non-attainment is a dangerous problem for the health of people. This is because it has detrimental effects on the human body; more specifically, the respiratory system. The creation of ozone is generally facilitated by sunlight and high temperatures. Therefore, ozone levels are the highest during the summer from May through September. In order to reduce the peak levels of ozone in the summer, abstaining from driving would help immensely. This is because cars and motorcycles are the source of about 56 percent of nitrous oxide and 45 percent of volatile organic compound emissions. These two components are what reacts in the atmosphere in order to form ozone. In order to reduce the number of cars on the road during these days, the implementation of permits would be effective. Even if the permits were sold at a low price, it would help reduce the negative emissions by up 50 tons per day. This source is sort of similar to the article, “Radiocarbon method in monitoring fossil fuel emission.” This is because they both deal with emissions and the harmful side effects they have. Some follow-up questions for this source could be: If the permits were to be implemented, how would that effect people in rural communities compared to urban communities? What would the most effective price for permits be if they were to be implemented?

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