Annotated Bibliography|Rail and Road in Innercity Transport

Prosenjit Dey Chaudhury. “Rail and Road in Intercity Transport: Energy and Environmental Impact.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 38, no. 42, 2003, pp. 4423–4425.

Within Chaudhury’s work he focuses on the environmental effects that various different modes of transportation have and the benefits and disadvantages of each. However, the main aspects that are highlighted in his report are the differences between railway emissions and automobile emissions. Studies done in India have shown that in urban inner-cities the most environmentally-friendly modes of transportation are railways and support for expanding railways has increased as well. Automobiles use more energy sources and contribute more environmental pollution than “the rail mode” of transportation. The differences are especially visible when rates of pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides. Based off these observations, the National Transport Committee of India recommended increased construction and utilization of railways into urban regions. Unfortunately, the convenience of automobiles triumphed over trains and roads were expanded instead of railways tracks.


This sources does a great job of explaining the environmental effects of both modes of transportation. Preference for highways and automobiles over railways is a phenomenon seen globally and speaks to the individualistic mindset of placing convenience for the individual over the well-being of the environment in the long-run. Since a drastic decrease in motor transport is not entirely feasible, Chaudhury noted that even the increased use of communal buses over individual cars would be more beneficial to the environment. This report does a fantastic job arguing for the increased use of railway in the inner cities to help preserve the environment and save energy, but it mostly centers on just environmental benefits. Included as part of the conclusion, Chaudhury calls for someone to research the cost and economic affects that would need to be factored in to construct more railways into the inner city.


The author also requests answers “behind the secular drift of traffic away from rail and the particular measures necessary to arrest this trend,” which my essay centers around, but with a main focus on the shift in American culture. Although this study was conducted in India the same societal shifts are seen in America as the railways are abandoned for automobiles, and the environmental effects that these modes of transportation have are universal so they help support my argument for increased use of railways within the United States. Questions that arise out of this text are: Have there been any changes or discussions to utilize railways over automobiles? If so, what was the cultural response?

Sleeping Epidemic in Low-income

This research experiment was held in 2012 based on sleep problems and amount of income one makes. It was found that adults in low-income areas experience sleep problems. Such a problem is due to how much one has to work to have enough money to provide for themselves as well as their family. It is a very formal and extensive experiment that observed participants over a couple of years. The abstract of the paper provides information that the average public can connect to and understand without having to think much about the diction. While in the actual study itself, the words and explanations become more extensive and connect a lot with other scientists who may be in the same field. It showed that although stress if found throughout all income ranges, the ones who suffered the most were those who basically had to worry about when their next pay check was going to be, leaving them tossing and turning throughout the night. The idea of the type of mattress wasn’t truly mentioned in the paper, raising questions whether or not this could also be a cause of sleeping problems in low-come families. There were well informed tables and graphs to provide a visual of the data collected and helped the reader fully understand the difference in numbers between the wealthy and poor and their relate sleep problems.

Citation: Stranges, S., Tigbe, W., Gómez-Olivé, F. X., Thorogood, M., & Kandala, N.-B. (2012). Sleep Problems: An Emerging Global Epidemic? Findings From the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE Study Among More Than 40,000 Older Adults From 8 Countries Across Africa and Asia. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from Sleep: A publication of the sleep research society.


-Racheal C.

Monsters Under the Bed

In the article, Chris Thomson is able to bring the reader back into their own memories as a child and how strange and terrifying it was to think there was a monster lying quietly beneath their bed while their parents closed the door softly behind them. He brings in a quick history about where the monster most likely first appeared, through the bogeyman. He goes through different variations of this bogeyman such as the Sack Man who captures children in many Latin cultures. He brings up the question of why children are afraid of what’s not there. In reality, being afraid of the unknown is ingrained into every being’s conscience. The fear “comes from a lack of understanding of the world around them and their quickly-expanding imagination.” This article is good in depicting the culture that revolves around mattresses and shows how ironic a bed could actually be. Though it’s made for comfort and sleep, people almost become afraid of it when it comes time to actually fall asleep amongst the folds. A question that could be brought through after reading the writing would be how long this fear stays with a person. One never really think about elders being afraid of the dark, but there very well could be that fear, entrenched since childhood, lurking in the back of one’s mind, the itch one feels when they think they’re being watched. Could this fear be avoided? Or is it, in reality, a fear one is born with, regardless hearing stories being told?

Citation: Thomson, C. (2016, March 16). The History Of That Monster Who Lives Under Your Bed. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from Dreams.


-Racheal C

Mattress Culture

This article depicts the epidemic that happened and may still be happening in China, published in 2006. Chinese workers were being worked to extremes that bureaus began providing their workers with mattresses so they can stay at the office to continue their tasks. Because the employees were being paid so low, they took the offer and ended up killing themselves as they pushed their bodies too hard for extended periods of time. Geoffrey York brings up how only until the death of a former athlete had succumbed to such fate. Through York’s writing, he provides a sense of urgency but also an unbiased stance, relaying information the public needs to realize the problem, but not pushing the reader to accept a certain side. Though there was an outrage in the country, it seemed as though the government did nothing to help the problem. Should the government be more involved in how much companies should be paying their workers? This article also shows a bit of the culture surrounding the mattress. That a mattress is no more than just something soft to sleep on for a couple minutes and they don’t really think about what the body does while it is sleeping. And that although having a mattress can be helpful in providing a better sleep, only taking quick naps will not provide the body enough time to recover from the daily exertions of everyday life.

Citation: York, G. (2006, August 22). China’s ‘mattress culture’ takes sometimes fatal toll on employees. Retrieved November 14, 2016


-Racheal C

Chain Supply of an MRI

Pantalony, D. “The Cost of Living: Tracing the Supply Chain for Superconductors in MRI

Machines.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 183.11 (2011): n. pag. Web.

The research done by David Pantalony is hugely critical in tracing back the supply chain of an important ingredient to the manufacturing of an MRI. The ingredient is niobium and the controversy surrounding its mining process is substantial. Pantalony found that the American intelligence experts considered the Brazilian mine for niobium to be a security and health concern. Pantalony’s research in Brazil showed that niobium miners have been exposed to concentrated levels of toxins and radiation in their job. There is also a connection between increased amounts of radon produced in niobium mining and increased cancer incidence among workers. Other places like Oregon have been responsible for the radioactive sludge created from its rare metal refining and processing.

The way that Pantalony lays out his research in his scientific journal is neatly organized. The language is not overly complicated, which made reading his work actually enjoyable to read unlike some scientific journals. He made the evidence he found quite interesting, it makes the reader want to find out more about the topic and what else anybody has done to help stop the environmental and health risks.

The controversy about niobium fits into my theme about the MRI perfectly. The environmental and human health risks challenge the value system society has on medical technology. It makes us question whether the MRI is really worth the good health of thousands of miners and the good of our environment. This article is the key issue that is discussed in my paper.

The Cost of an MRI

By Janae Leach

“Why Does an MRI Cost So Darn Much?” Time. Time, n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

This article answers the popular question of why an MRI scan is so expensive for patients. The first reason the article offers is that there are only five companies that make MRI machines and each one specializes in magnet strengths. Therefore, there is not a lot of competition for a hospital or medical center to buy one. The article talks about machine prices with the cheapest being around $150,000 and the most ranging up to 3 million. There is a huge range of prices for an MRI scan and that’s because hospitals and medical centers can charge whatever they want. In most cases, they do not have to justify prices or even disclose them ahead of time. In addition to cost of the scan, the total bill for the MRI will include the radiologist fee, the contrast dyes, and the cost of the procedure itself.

This article is pretty standard with a more serious tone. It is shorter and concise with the information it provides, which makes it easy to read all the way through. All the scientific facts it includes are described in a way that any audience can read it and understand.

The information from the article is useful in my description of the average cost for an MRI scan in my essay. The average cost of a scan is important, basic information for readers to understand about the MRI.




CT and PET Scans

By Janae Leach

Perry, John. “On This Page.” N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

This webpage provides basic information about CT and PET scans. For example, A CT scanner produces x-ray images of slices through the body. Also, CT scanning is a medical imaging technology, which was established in Britain in 1971. CT and PET scans can be found world-wide, as well as, the MRI machine. This website is also for the ImPACT CT scanner evaluation group. They have been around for over twenty-five years and they have provided a good range of CT scanner services to various providers of healthcare in the UK, but the knowledge and information has benefitted users and patients around the world. The website also gives out resources for all people involved with CT scanning.

The author of the website gives off a semi-formal tone that is inviting. A lot of the information on the web-page involves updates about the ImPACT CT scanner evaluation group and basic information about CT and PET scans. That information is simple to read and understand. It is basically a medical blog to help those seeking advice for a CT scan.

This information aids in my comparison of the MRI machine to PET and CT scans. PET and CT scans possess key differences from the MRI, yet they are essential to radiology. The information also helps the claim that the MRI is the superior radiology machine.